Eckman facial expression
If you guess correctly, that is evidence facial expressions are universal. If you guess incorrectly, that is evidence facial expressions are culture-specific. Choose .
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Nonverbal Behavior Pioneer
It may be surprising now, but the general consensus when I started my research was that judgments based on facial expression and bodily movements were at.
Description:Paul Ekman's seminal research into universal versus culture-specific expression and gesture in the mid 's was nothing short of revolutionary. The prevailing consensus at the time - particularly within influential anthropological circles e. The opposing - but at the time largely dismissed - universal argument was that there is an innate biological component to facial expressions - a view most famously espoused by Charles Darwin during his treatise on the expression of the emotions in the 's. In Ekman set out to settle the debate whether facial behaviors associated with emotion are universal or culture specific. In a series of groundbreaking research publications co-authored with Wallace Friesen he provided strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that the association between certain facial muscular expressions and discrete emotions is universal. Ekman's research based on film footage taken of people from an isolated area of New Guinea was particularly compelling; as Ekman notes "These people have not been contaminated by the media or by contact with the outside world